The EU-UK Agreement: An Analysis

At the stroke of midnight on December 31, 2020, the United Kingdom (UK) officially left the European Union (EU) after a long and tumultuous divorce. However, the two sides managed to strike a last-minute deal on their future relationship after months of negotiations. The EU-UK Agreement, which covers a wide range of issues, from trade and fisheries to security and cooperation, has been hailed as a historic achievement, but it also raises many questions and concerns.

In this article, we will provide an analysis of the main aspects of the EU-UK Agreement and their implications for both parties.


The most important and contentious issue in the negotiations was undoubtedly trade. The EU and the UK had to agree on a new framework for their economic relations that would avoid tariffs and quotas on goods and services, as well as ensure a level playing field for businesses operating in both markets.

The EU-UK Agreement establishes a free trade area for goods, meaning that tariffs will be eliminated on all goods traded between the two sides, provided they meet the necessary rules of origin and standards. This is a significant achievement that will prevent a disruption of trade worth billions of euros.

However, the agreement falls short of providing full access to services, such as financial services, which are crucial to the UK economy. This means that UK firms will face new barriers when trying to do business in the EU, and vice versa.

Moreover, the agreement only covers trade in goods and services, but not investment. This could create uncertainty for investors who might be hesitant to commit to long-term projects without a clear legal framework.


Another contentious issue in the negotiations was access to each other`s fishing waters. The EU wanted to maintain the status quo, which allowed EU fleets to fish in UK waters, while the UK wanted to take back control of its waters and limit EU access.

The EU-UK Agreement sets out a transition period of five and a half years, during which EU vessels will have gradually reduced access to UK waters. After that, both sides will negotiate annually on the sharing of fishing opportunities. This compromise has been criticized by both sides, with the UK fishing industry claiming that it has been betrayed, and some EU countries claiming that it is insufficient.

Level Playing Field

The EU-UK Agreement includes provisions to ensure that both sides maintain a level playing field in areas such as labor, environment, and state aid. This is intended to prevent a race to the bottom in standards that could lead to unfair competition.

The UK has agreed to maintain high standards in these areas, but it will no longer be bound by EU laws and regulations. This means that there is a risk that the UK might weaken its standards in the future to gain a competitive advantage, which could lead to friction with the EU.

Security and Cooperation

The EU-UK Agreement includes provisions for security and law enforcement cooperation, such as sharing of information and extradition arrangements. However, the UK has opted out of the European Arrest Warrant and Europol, which could limit its ability to combat cross-border crime.

Moreover, the agreement does not cover cooperation in areas such as foreign policy and defense, which are increasingly important in a volatile global environment.


The EU-UK Agreement is a complex and comprehensive document that seeks to regulate the future relationship between two important trading partners. It has achieved some important goals, such as maintaining tariff-free trade in goods, but it also falls short in some areas, such as services and investment.

Moreover, it is a compromise that has left both sides dissatisfied in some areas, and it has not resolved some fundamental issues, such as the future of Northern Ireland and the border with Ireland.

In the end, the success of the EU-UK Agreement will depend on how it is implemented and enforced, and how the two sides manage to build a constructive and cooperative relationship based on mutual respect and trust.